• 1. A youthful Hernando de Soto
    Portrait by J. Sartain and R. Telfer (1858) courtesy of the New York Public Library
  • 2. 1562 map of Spanish holdings in the New World
    Cartography by Diego Gutiérrez courtesy of the Library of Congress
  • 3. Atahualpa, the thirteenth and last emperor of the Inca, was befriended by De Soto during the Pizzaro expedition to Peru.
    (16th century) courtesy of Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesit/Art Resource
  • 4. Hernando de Soto’s ships from the Spanish port of Seville, April 7, 1538
    Engraving by John William Orr (1858) courtesy of the Library of Congress
  • 5. Prehistoric Florida Indians used atlatls (spear throwers) to hunt Ice Age mastodons.
    “The Mastodon Hunt” by Hermann Trappman courtesy of Hermann Trappman
  • 6. Life in a pre-Columbian Florida coastal village
    “The Mullet Run” by Hermann Trappman courtesy of Hermann Trappman
  • 7. Spanish galleon sailing along Florida’s coast
    “The Spanish Arrival” by Dean Quigley courtesy of Anne D. Reynolds, Museum of Florida Art and Culture
  • 8. Emperor Charles V, ruler of Spain from 1519-1558, granted De Soto permission to explore La Florida.
    Portrait by Tiziano (1533) courtesy of Museo Nacional del Prado
  • 9. Horses being hoisted off Spanish ships. Two hundred twenty horses were brought on the expedition.
    “Embarcadero de los Cavallos” (1769) courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
  • 10. Florida native people harvesting food from the sea. A man points to a ship on the horizon and holds a fish trap made from reed and vines.
    “In Ages Past” by Christopher M. Still courtesy of Christopher M. Still
  • 11. Indians tending those who contracted diseases from European explorers.
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (1590) courtesy of the Granger Collection
  • 12. Hernando de Soto’s expedition making landfall in Tampa Bay on May 30, 1539
    “The Landing” by Hermann Trappman courtesy of Hermann Trappman
  • 13. Coastal Florida Indian village in the 16th century
    “Calusa” by Dean Quigley courtesy of Dean Quigley
  • 14. The rescue of Juan Ortiz, a Spaniard captured by Indians 10 years earlier. Ortiz became De Soto's translator.
    “Sevilla! Sevilla!” by George Gibbs (1898) courtesy of the Library of Congress
  • 15. Florida Indians from various tribes met at flint knapping workshops, such as this, to create and share projectile points.
    "Flint Knappers" by Hermann Trappman courtesy of Hermann Trappman
  • 16. Timucuan Indians used dugout canoes.
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (1591) courtesy of the Granger Collection
  • 17. The Hernando de Soto Entrada (the first expedition and conquest of a country)
    Illustration by Dan Feaser (1969) courtesy of the National Park Service
  • 18. Typical dress and appearance of Renaissance men
    “Suite of Cardinal Francesco” (detail) by Andrea Mantegna (1474) courtesy of Erich Lessing/Art Resource
  • 19. A meeting between Chief Urriparacoxi’s men and Captain Gallegos.
    Illustration by Ray Andersen courtesy of Wilderness Graphics, Inc.
  • 20. Hernando de Soto’s secretary, Rodrigo Rangel
    “Night Camp” by Hermann Trappman courtesy of Hermann Trappman
  • 21. Florida Indian crops consisted of corn, called maize, beans, and squash.
    Illustration by Ray Andersen courtesy of Wilderness Graphics, Inc.
  • 22. Hernando de Soto’s army enslaved hundreds of Indians to carry provisions, materials, and equipment needed by the expedition.
    courtesy of Florida Center for Instructional Technology, USF
  • 23. Spain’s empire was funded by the vast amount of gold, silver, and precious stones taken from the people of the Americas and transported across the Atlantic in great fleets called plate fleets.
    “Coast of La Florida” by Dean Quigley courtesy of Dean Quigley
  • 24. Florida Indian warriors would often dismember their slain enemies and keep pieces as war trophies.
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of the Library of Congress/Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake