• 25. 16th-century Native American village
    “Indian Village” by Lloyd Kenneth Townsend (1992) courtesy of the National Park Service
  • 26. An artist’s depiction of a principal Timucuan chief at the time of Spanish contact
    “Chief Outina” by Theodore Morris courtesy of Theodore Morris
  • 27. Native American hunting in Florida
    “Early Hunter” by Theodore Morris courtesy of Theodore Morris
  • 28. Conquistadors watch as their dogs tear Native Americans to pieces
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of the Granger Collection
  • 29. Florida Indian hunter
    “Morning Hunt” by Theodore Morris courtesy of Theodore Morris
  • 30. Native American village with fortified walls
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of Library of Congress/ Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake
  • 31. De Soto’s expedition settled in a bivouac of virgin woods to rest from the day’s strenuous battles.
    Illustration by George T. Andrew (1876) courtesy of North Wind Picture Archives
  • 32. Trumpets, drums, and other martial instruments were common in European armies and expeditions.
    Painting by Jan Vermeyen (16th century) courtesy of Art Resource
  • 33. A diorama showing everyday life of Florida’s first people
    33. A diorama showing everyday life of Florida’s first people courtesy of the Museum of Florida History
  • 34. Great epidemics followed in the wake of De Soto’s army, infecting many of the tribal societies of the Southeast.
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of the Granger Collection
  • 35. Taking of Indians was the highest priority of De Soto’s soldiers.
    Detail of “La Florida” by Christopher M. Still courtesy of Christopher M. Still
  • 36. Spanish treatment of native captives was harsh and led to swift reprisal from native tribes.
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of the Library of Congress/Kraus Collection of Sir Francis Drake
  • 37. Indian shamans and healers tried to heal their people infected with European diseases.
    “Apalachee Shaman” by Theodore Morris courtesy of Theodore Morris
  • 38. Europeans captured Native Americans at every opportunity. These slaves carried tons of supplies.
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of the National Park Service
  • 39. Timucuan chiefs displayed their power through the animal trophies they wore, such as this panther headdress.
    “Panther Headdress” by Theodore Morris courtesy of Theodore Morris
  • 40. Pánfilo de Narváez came to La Florida 10 years before De Soto. He was known for his brutality and cruelty towards indigenous peoples.
    “Governor Pánfilo de Narváez argues with Cabeza de Vaca” by Hermann Trappman courtesy of Hermann Trappman
  • 41. Southern Indians showed a variety of physical types, hairstyles, and ways of dress. They fashioned breechcloths, skirts, and mantles from hide, bark fiber, grass, or Spanish moss. The southernmost tribes went naked in summer.
    “Native Americans” by John Lytle courtesy of John Lytle
  • 42. A Native American chief and his wife dressed in colorful furs and feathers sit in an elevated position.
    “On Top of the World” by Merald Clark courtesy of Florida Museum of Natural History, Randell Research Center
  • 43. “Florida Native Woman”
    By John White (1585) courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum
  • 44. A Timicuan warrior preparing for battle
    By John White (1585) courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum
  • 45. 1591 De Bry/Le Moyne map of Florida and Cuba
    courtesy of Geographicus Antique Maps (www.geographicus.com)
  • 46. Meeting of tribal chiefs before they leave on the warpath
    Engraving by Theodor de Bry (16th century) courtesy of North Wind Picture Archives
  • 47. Deer meat was a prized gift amongst Native Americans. Chief Uzachile’s gift of venison to the Spanish was meant as a peace offering.
    “Archaic Florida” by Dean Quigley courtesy of Dean Quigley
  • 48. Hernando de Soto
    courtesy of De Soto National Memorial